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• A strain injury most commonly causes plantar fasciitis (inflammation to the plantar fascia ligament). It causes micro-tears to the ligament as it attaches to the heel bone or other tightness areas on the sole.
• The plantar fascia is the largest ligament in the human body.
• The main symptoms of plantar fasciitis include
○ heel pain,
○ foot pain,
○ stiffness, and
• Plantar fasciitis is diagnosed based on the history of the condition as well as the physical examination.
• Plantar fasciitis can occur alone or be related to underlying diseases.
• Plantar fasciitis is treated by measures that decrease the associated inflammation and avoid reinjury.
• Plantar fasciitis is commonly mistaken for Baxter’s neuritis, which is a nerve entrapment in the heel.
• Chronic plantar fasciitis (over one year) can become plantar fasciitis due to the avascular scarring of the plantar fascia. It is painful due to inadequate blood supply to the scarred tissues and is resistant to treatment that reduces inflammation typically applied for plantar fasciitis.
The sole is referred to as the plantar area. Plantar fasciitis is a chronic local inflammation of the “bowstring-like” ligament stretching underneath the sole, also referred to as the plantar fascia, that attaches at the heel.
Plantar fasciitis is most commonly caused by repetitive strain injury to the ligament of the sole. Such strain injury can be from excessive running or walking, inappropriate footgear, and jumping damage from landing.
Plantar fasciitis can also be caused by certain diseases, including reactive arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.
A sprain of the foot or ankle occurs when ligaments that hold the bones together are overstretched, and their fibers tear or stretch too far. The looseness of ligaments in the joints of the foot may lead to chronic foot pain and deformity. Repeated overstressing of the same structure of the foot may cause:
• stress fractures,
• plantar fasciitis, and
• acute and chronic osteoarthritis
Plantar fasciitis causes pain and tenderness of the bottom of the foot. The tenderness is usually toward the heel, but the entire sole can be affected. A sign of abnormal tension or tightness that can lead to plantar fasciitis is a bony prominence (heel spur) that develops where the inflamed plantar fascia attaches to the heel bone (calcaneus).
Plantar fasciitis can make walking and running difficult. It can make the foot feel particularly stiff and sensitive in the morning or when rising after sitting or getting out of a car. Plantar fasciitis makes it difficult to walk barefoot on hard surfaces. Sometimes the bottom of the foot can feel warm, swollen, and tender.
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